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Astronomy, and the revolutionary James Webb Telescope, advances knowledge about the universe.

Astronomy, and the revolutionary James Webb Telescope, advances knowledge about the universe.

James Webb on the development of knowledge about the universe. Astronomy is the study of the universe that exists outside the Earth's atmosphere. This includes things that can be seen with the naked eye, such as the sun, moon, planets, and stars. It also includes celestial objects that can only be observed with telescopes or other instruments, such as distant galaxies and small particles, and things we cannot see, such as dark matter and dark energy. Modern science, that is, science that was able to clarify the method of observation and experimentation using technical instruments (especially the telescope and the microscope), began to develop properly in Europe in the sixteenth century. Modern scientific method It has well-defined stages, like a kind of investigative theory. Each observation is tested through hypotheses, which will guide the experiments to achieve the results. The study of space has evolved a lot over the years. In ancient times, astronomy could be defined as the activity of observing the stars to classify the constellations with the naked eye. But nowadays, with the advancement of technology, humanity has become able to discover and study celestial bodies whether in the solar system or in very distant galaxies. Despite the development of astronomy, scientists still find it difficult to understand the universe and humanity's role in it.

As more mysteries are discovered, analyzes of extraterrestrial life become more complex. Such is the case with the advances in knowledge about the universe provided by the revolutionary James Webb Telescope. The astronomical telescope is the invention of Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, who invented it based on the model of the telescope created by Hans Lippershey in 1608 from the lenses of the first spectacles, which until then had been considered a common household item.. It was Galileo who proved Copernicus' heliocentric theory that the planets revolve around the sun and not around the Earth, as Ptolemy claimed in his geocentric theory. An important point to note is that with Galileo's use of the telescope, science also became closely associated with “technology”, that is, with the ability of humans to extend their senses through inventions and instruments, and with them, to know and describe the universe. Many telescope models have been developed from the Galileo telescope so that we can have a large-scale observing model like that given to us by the Hubble Telescope and now provided by the revolutionary James Webb Telescope. Since then, a real scientific and cosmological “revolution” began to develop. The Hubble Telescope, launched in April 1990, was responsible for taking images that are extremely important for studies of the universe. The images taken through the lenses of this telescope revealed a universe much larger and more beautiful than humans ever imagined.

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Hubble telescope It obtained detailed images of nebulae, which made it possible to understand the formation and death of stars, produced images of more than 1,500 galaxies, showing a massive, previously unobserved universe, and provided a real-time view of a comet colliding with a galaxy. Jupiter, carbon dioxide (CO2) is located on the surface of one of the planets, planets outside the solar system have been identified, and images of collisions between galaxies and black holes have been discovered, which is a region of space with a gravitational field so intense that not even light can reach it. Run away from him. The images taken by the James Webb Telescope are even more revolutionary than those taken by the Hubble Telescope. The James Webb Telescope is dedicated to observing the universe in the infrared, while Hubble will continue to study it primarily in the ultraviolet and optical waves, although it will have some infrared capability. The James Webb Telescope also has a much larger mirror than Hubble's. Therefore, today he will see “invisible” things using the Hubble Telescope. The first image revealed by the James Webb Telescope shows the distant universe. The primary mission of the James Webb Telescope is to examine infrared radiation from the birth of the universe with the Big Bang and make observations about the childhood of the universe. Observing very distant objects is the telescope's main goal, and its most challenging. This is what Hubble cannot do due to size limitations and lack of infrared equipment, unlike the James Webb Telescope.

As the universe expands, it is only possible to observe the first 100 million years after the Big Bang using the infrared radiation of the James Webb Telescope. The light from the most distant galaxy in that image came out when the universe was only 600 million years old. Using the James Webb Telescope, we can see its chemical composition. And then we found that they were chemically similar to the closest galaxies we know. We will learn how our galaxy formed and how the chemical enrichment of the universe gave birth to our solar system and our lives. It was also impressive to learn that the James Webb Telescope could easily detect water on planets surrounding other stars and starlight passing through the planet's atmosphere. Since the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) began its science operations in July 2022, a series of images have been released as the most detailed picture of the universe. The main purpose of the telescope is to look into the past, looking back a few hundred thousand years after the Big Bang. Thus, it is common for it to bring back images of the oldest stars and galaxies ever discovered. The image draws attention to the age of the galaxies we see there, some of which are more than 13 billion light-years away, indicating the beginnings of the universe (one light-year is about 9.5 trillion kilometers). Some of them attract attention because of the record they represent, while others surprise with their beauty and rich details.

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It can be seen from the above that the James Webb Telescope is transforming astronomy. One of the main capabilities of the James Webb Telescope It is your ability to look back in time, into the past, to the beginning of the universe, and observe the first galaxies and stars. The telescope, which is 1.5 million kilometers away from Earth, was able to observe the farthest and oldest galaxy found so far. The James Webb Telescope also made the first detection of the “life particle.”. A team of international scientists has discovered a new carbon compound in space for the first time. With its great discoveries, the James Webb Telescope demonstrates the importance of the telescope by revealing, with unexpected speed, a series of information that could call cosmological theories into question.

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  • Fernando Alcoforado, 84 years old, recipient of the Order of Merit for CONFEA/CREA System Engineering, member of the Bahia Academy of Education, SBPC- Brazilian Association for the Advancement of Science and IPB- Polytechnic Institute of Bahia, engineer and PhD in Regional Planning and Regional Development from the University of Barcelona, ​​university professor ( Engineering, Economics and Management) and consultant in the fields of strategic planning, business planning, regional planning and energy systems planning, and was advisor to the Vice President of Engineering and Technology at LIGHT SA Electric Power Distribution Company of Rio de Janeiro, Strategic Planning Coordinator at CEPED – Research and Development Center of Bahia, Undersecretary of the Ministry of Energy In the state of Bahia, Minister of Planning of El Salvador, he is the author of books Globalisation (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 1997), From Collor to FHC- Brazil and the New World Order (Dis). (Nobel Publishing House, São Paulo, 1998), Project for Brazil (Nobel Publishing House, São Paulo, 2000), Conditions for the development of the state of Bahia (Doctoral thesis. University of Barcelona,, Globalization and development (Editora Nobel, São Paulo, 2006), Bahia – Development from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries and strategic objectives in the contemporary era (EGBA, Salvador, 2008), Necessary conditions for economic and social development – ​​the case of the state of Bahia (VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Saarbrücken, Germany, 2010), Global warming and planetary disasters (Vienna – Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2010), Sustainable Amazon – for the progress of Brazil and the fight against global warming (Vienna – Editora e Gráfica, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, 2011), Factors conditioning economic and social development (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2012), Energy in the World and in Brazil – Energy and catastrophic climate change in the 21st century (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2015), The major scientific, economic and social revolutions that changed the world (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2016), Inventing a new Brazil (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2017), Left x right and their convergence (Biana Press Association, El Salvador, 2018, co-authored), How to invent the future to change the world (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2019), Threatened humanity and its survival strategies (Editora Dialectica, São Paulo, 2021), The renaissance of science and technology throughout history and its contribution to the progress and survival of humanity (Editora CRV, Curitiba, 2022), from the book chapter Flood guide (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2022) and How to protect humans from threats to their existence and avoid the extinction of humanity (Generes Publications, Europe, Republic of Moldova, Chisinau, 2023).
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