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Hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinical overview [podcast]

Hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinical overview [podcast]

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a type of primary liver cancer that arises mainly from hepatocytes, which are the parenchymal cells of the organ. Also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, it is often associated with conditions such as cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B or C, and other liver risk factors.

In this episode, Jader Rico, Surgeon-Oncologist and Content Writer of the White Paper, talks about liver cancer, which is known for its aggressiveness and is usually diagnosed in advanced stages. The expert also highlights the importance of early detection in high-risk patients

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Pathophysiology

Epidemics science:

  • It is increasingly prevalent, affecting Asians more than Westerners (>20 cases/100,000 people and <5 cases/100,000 people, respectively);
  • In most cases, it is associated with cirrhosis and hepatitis B (HCV) and C (HCV);
  • In patients with HCV cirrhosis, the annual incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is 3-5%;
  • It can develop with or without cirrhosis.
  • Survive for 5 years: 18%;
  • The third cause of death from cancer in the world and the fifth most common malignant disease in Western countries.
  • It is considered the main cause of death in patients with cirrhosis;
  • The increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndrome and obesity tend to become the main causes of liver cancer in Western countries.

Pathophysiology:

  • Chronic liver diseases > inflammation, fibrosis, and generation of abnormal liver cells >> cirrhosis.
  • Genetic and epigenetic events that culminate in the formation of dysplastic nodules.
  • Molecular changes lead to the development of dysplastic cells with advantages – proliferation, invasion and survival;
  • Mutations in the TERT promoter – 60% of cases.
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Differential diagnosis

  • Liver metastases.
  • Bile duct cancer.
  • Hemangioma and other benign liver tumors.
  • Liver abscess.

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Know more about Hepatocellular carcinoma Check out the full episode of this podcast below or on the official Whitebook channel at Spotify!