Calculating the expansion rate of the universe is a major challenge. The lack of success in this endeavor is due to a very important factor. The numbers vary depending on the observer’s point of view and what he observes. The proposed solution places Earth in the middle of a cosmic vacuum, don’t you understand? We explain.
The standard measurement model of cosmology is known as cosmologically constant cold dark matter (ΛCDM). This model is based on detailed observations of leftover light from the Big Bang, called cosmic microwave background radiation. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a fundamental milestone in the study of cosmology.
The cosmic microwave background is characterized by extremely precise temperature patterns, measured in microkelvins. These variations represent fluctuations in the density of the early universe. They are monitored and analyzed so that, based on the interpretation of their values, information about the distribution of matter in the universe a few million years after the Big Bang can be revealed.
Since the Big Bang, the expansion of the universe has caused galaxies to move farther apart from each other, and the relationship between a galaxy’s speed and its distance is governed by the “Hubble constant” of about 43 miles (70 km). Per second per megaparsec (unit of length in astronomy). Founded in the 1920s, it has been revised to this day. The Hubble constant is the main tool for measuring the expansion of the universe.
Is the Earth inside a huge vacuum in space?
However, when we use the Hubble constant to measure the cosmic microwave background, inconsistencies appear. When the expansion rate is measured using nearby galaxies and supernovae, it is up to 10% higher than expected based on the cosmic microwave background. This discrepancy between data has been called “Hubble jitter” and has kept many scientists up at night in recent decades.
However, one Recent study A potential solution to this paradox is that we would be living in a massive vacuum of space, and this could distort local measurements due to the flow of matter coming from the vacuum. However, this proposal challenges the Standard Model which predicts a more uniform distribution of matter. To achieve this result, the researchers sought an alternative theory called modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), which proposes changes in the laws of gravity in regions of weak gravity, such as the outer edges of galaxies.
Surprisingly, their findings coincide with recent observations of the mass flow of galaxies, suggesting that we may be near the center of the cosmic void. A region of the universe with a density of matter much lower than average, resulting in a low concentration of galaxies and cosmic objects.
This theory raises the possibility that matter in and around this empty spot exerts an outflow, which could distort measurements of the expansion rate observed in cosmic objects. This theory partly explains why nearby objects are 10% faster in their expansion flux than the rate of background radiation.
All of these results challenge conventions regarding Hubble tensory and will force a revision of current theories about how gravity works in celestial bodies. This may prompt a revision of the theory of general relativity itself, so that it can be applied on larger cosmic scales. However, if this theory is confirmed, we will have to revise our entire understanding of gravity over the past few centuries.
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