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HomescienceMinas Gerais Agency | "Health" warns of the dangers of diabetes

Minas Gerais Agency | “Health” warns of the dangers of diabetes

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Diabetes is a chronic condition caused by insufficient production or poor absorption of insulin, the hormone that regulates blood glucose (blood sugar) and provides energy to the body. Diabetes can cause high blood sugar levels, and high levels may lead to complications in the heart, arteries, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. In more serious cases, diabetes can lead to death.

June 26 is celebrated as National Diabetes Day, a date set by the Ministry of Health in partnership with the World Health Organization, to raise awareness and prevent the disease, which according to what was stated in… Brazilian Diabetes AssociationIt affects more than 13 million people in the country, representing 6.9% of the country's population.

In the state of Minas Gerais, 1,700 people have already died from the disease in 2024. In previous years, there were 7,239 deaths in 2021, 7,070 deaths in 2022, and 6,467 deaths in 2023. In addition to these numbers, there were 16,071 A case of admission to hospital due to illness. in 2021, 17,606 in 2022, and 17,596 in 2023. In 2024, 5,545 hospitalizations have been recorded so far.

Dr. Isabella Guimarães / Photo: Rafael Mendes

Diabetes is already one of the diseases with the highest number of cases in the world, explains Dr. Isabella Guimarães, who works at the Basic Health Unit (UBS) Delson Costa, in Santa Luzia. “The population in general is aging, and chronic diseases, such as diabetes, are becoming more prevalent,” he adds.

According to her, the best way to prevent diabetes is to engage in regular physical activity, maintain a healthy diet and avoid alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.

the disease

Diabetes can present in different ways and has several types, the most common of which are gestational diabetes, prediabetes, type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

The main symptoms are: extreme hunger and thirst, and the desire to urinate several times a day. Other symptoms that may appear include weight loss, excessive weakness, mood changes, blurred vision, and delayed wound healing. When any symptoms appear, it is essential that the person seek medical attention immediately to begin treatment.

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Gestational diabetes occurs temporarily during pregnancy. In these cases, blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but still below the level that can be classified as type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance that every pregnant woman undergoes regular diabetes screening during prenatal care. . Women with this disease are at greater risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth. This condition affects between 2% and 4% of all pregnant women and means an increased risk of diabetes later on for the mother and baby.

Prediabetes occurs when blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be considered type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and it is a warning sign from the body, which usually appears in obese people, and patients with high blood pressure. Blood pressure and/or people with lipid changes.

This alert from the body is important because it is the only stage of diabetes that can still be reversed, preventing the progression of the disease and the appearance of complications, including a heart attack. However, 50% of people diagnosed with prediabetes, even with proper medical advice, go on to develop diabetes. Changing eating habits and exercising are key success factors in controlling it.

Type 1 diabetes usually appears in childhood or adolescence, but can be diagnosed in adults as well. Its cause is still unknown and the best way to prevent it is through healthy practices (diet, physical activity, abstinence from alcohol, tobacco and other drugs). This type represents between 5% and 10% of all people with diabetes in Brazil.

The most common type is type 2 diabetes, which affects about 90% of people diagnosed with the disease. It occurs when the body does not use the insulin produced adequately and is directly linked to weight gain, sedentary lifestyle, high triglycerides, high blood pressure, and inadequate eating habits.

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Comprehensive attention

Diabetes is diagnosed in all basic health units in the country, through examinations and scanning of the patient's health history and risk factors, and treatment and follow-up are then initiated by the UBS team or, depending on the observed condition, he is referred to specialized care.

To monitor the glycemic index, reagents and syringes are also available at UBS.

“It is important to emphasize that the first place a patient should go is to the basic health unit, as it is the gateway to SUS services. This ensures enhanced patient connection to the service in the area where he lives and qualified monitoring, timely and continuously, by the family health teams.” “, explains the Undersecretary of Health Care Networks, from the State Department of Health. Minas Gerais (SES-MG), Camila Moreira de Castro.

The Undersecretary adds: “In addition to working in primary care, we have 28 specialized care centers in the country, with multidisciplinary teams, in addition to care points of medium complexity.”

“In this sense, what SES-MG has done involves improving work procedures, dialogue and qualification and integrating primary care with specialized care in what we call Network Health, a project that started in 2019, and which we are implementing in the entire state,” informed Camila Castro.

Retired Annunciata Ferraz, 66, is a patient of Dr. Isabella Guimarães at UBS Delson Costa. She was diagnosed with the disease in 2012, and since then has been treated with insulin and other medications, and undergoes regular monitoring in the unit.

“The nurses here taught me how to use insulin and today I do it myself. But before the treatment, I used to drink and smoke, and my life was very disorganized. When diabetes was discovered, I began to obey my doctor. I stopped smoking and drinking, I walk, and today my diet is monitored from Before the nutritionist, I am much better and stronger, thanks to the treatment I received here.”

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Isabella Guimarães explains that diabetes treatment is individual and depends on the health condition of each patient. He added: “But it should be noted that drug treatment, no matter how modern, does not ignore the basic pillar in combating diabetes, which is changing your lifestyle.”

In this sense, Undersecretary Camila Castro highlighted that the SES-MG is implementing a set of measures aimed at promoting the well-being and health of the population, and preventing diseases such as diabetes.

“Among various initiatives, SES-MG, in 2023, transferred about R$42 million to encourage the establishment and strengthening of health academies in the state, an important strategy for promoting health and quality of life,” the Undersecretary was quoted as saying.

pharmaceutical

To control diabetes, the following medications are dispensed, through the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Assistance (Ceaf), or federal or state acquisition and distribution by SES-MG: long-acting insulin analog (Glargine) 100 IU/mL (FR) injectable solution, Long-acting insulin analogue (glargine) 100 IU/mL injectable solution, rapid-acting insulin analogue (disposable application system) 100 IU/mL injectable solution, rapid-acting insulin analogue (tubes with reusable application system) 100 IU/ml solution for injection and dapaglifusin 10 mg tablets.

Information is available about how to obtain these medications In this link.

It is also purchased and supplied by municipalities, through the Basic Component of Pharmaceutical Assistance (CBAF), which has tripartite funding (federal, state and municipal): Glibenclamide 5 mg tablet, Gliclazide 30 mg extended-release tablet, Gliclazide 60 mg extended-release tablet, Gliclazide 60 tablet mg. 80 mg, NPH Human Insulin Suspension Injectable 100 IU/mL, Regular Human Insulin Solution for Injection 100 IU/mL, Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets 500 mg and Metformin Hydrochloride Tablet 850 mg.

The Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular programme, a partnership between the Ministry of Health and more than 34,000 private pharmacies across the country, is also distributing free medicines, including metformin hydrochloride, glibenclamide and insulin.

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