The Climate Summit Chair asks delegates to approve the draft final declaration at COP26. These areas are negotiated.
This is the moment of truth for our planet, for our children and grandchildren. Summit Leader Alok Sharma said you know the world is ready for us to be bold and ambitious.
Thus, delegates from nearly 200 countries will continue to negotiate textual changes in the draft final declaration of the summit.
Sharma said that after the new round of negotiations, the countries will meet again, and that the aim is to finish the summit during Saturday. At the same time, he asked states not to demand more now, but to accept the draft.
“Please, do not ask yourself what you can apply for more, but ask what is sufficient,” he said to the delegates.
And most importantly, he added, ask yourself whether these texts ultimately work for all people and our planet.
In recent days, the United Nations has published a draft of such a final declaration. The last draft came Saturday morning, is what is being negotiated now.
See the list of issues on which countries differ at the bottom of this issue.
1 of 2Photo: Alastair Grant / AP
– Everyone has received something
Climate and Environment Minister Espin Barth Eddy (Labour) told VG he was excited, but optimistic:
We now have clear formulas on the need to stay below 1.5°C and that we need fast and strong emissions cuts. Eddy says the drafts also contain clear, good language about climate adaptation, climate financing, loss and damage, not least that we can now put the Paris Agreement rulebook into place.
He believed that everyone in the hall had received something important to them.
Sure, they both would have liked something a little different, that’s how it is in multilateral negotiations, but in general, all parties must now see the big picture and be accountable for their responsibility. Eddie says the world is waiting for a clear message from Glasgow, and we have to give them that.
Video: Here’s what Climate Minister Espen Barth Eide (Labour) said during Saturday’s meeting in the Plenary:
Despite Sharma’s request that countries not speak at the open meeting, several countries did just that, including China, Norway, South Africa, and the island nations of Fiji and Tuvalu.
Tuvalu’s agent, Seif Bainyu, said the summit sent a message of hope and ambition. He also asked delegates not to act on the basis of re-election in their home countries.
Holding a photo of his three grandchildren, he said responding to climate change is critical to the survival of our societies and the survival of humanity.
EU climate chief Frans Timmermans also spoke after several countries spoke. His message was clear.
– I wonder if we stumble before the finish line. “Don’t kill this moment,” he said, by demanding changes to the text.
India and China are different
India’s environment minister has said the country is not satisfied with the draft final declaration at the Glasgow Climate Summit.
“Developing countries deserve their fair share of the global carbon dioxide budget,” Bhubandar Yadav told an initial plenary session in Glasgow on Saturday.
He stated that other parts of the world have had significant greenhouse gas emissions for many years. According to Yadav, it is the unsustainable lifestyle and consumption in rich countries that have caused global warming.
The Chinese negotiator, Zhao Yingmin, warned the other delegates at the meeting. He said China is ready to work with all parties to propose “constructive ideas” for a final declaration. But he also added:
“At the moment, the script is not complete, but we have no intention of reopening,” Yingmin said.
He added that China believed that “minor changes” should be made.
Countries differ on this:
- Phasing out coal and subsidies
On Wednesday, a sentence was added to the draft asking the world to step up the pace of phasing out coal and all subsidies for fossil energy.
But this sentence has been weakened twice:
Because in Friday’s new draft, states were asked to “increase the pace” to phase out coal energy without carbon sequestration – “relentless coal energy” – and “inefficient” support for fossil energy.
While in Saturday’s draft, the phrase “increased the pace of phase-out” was replaced with the phrase “increased effort toward phase-out.”
US climate envoy John Kerry said Friday that his country supports the wording as it stands now, he writes AP.
In the Saturday draft, the word “ineffective” was left out.
according to NRK Norway, Switzerland, and many poor countries and small island states have spoken out to remove the word “ineffective”.
– We would have preferred to drop this word, but at the same time perhaps that is what is required to reach an agreement. It’s still a step forward, because you haven’t achieved it in previous years, Climate Minister Barth Eddy tells VG on Saturday.
Friday’s new words were met with strong skepticism by many.
“These are holes so big that you can drive a truck through them,” Alex Ravalovich of the Fossil Fuel Treaty Initiative said.
men, If this sentence Not With the final rounds removed from the negotiations, this will be the first time fossil energy is mentioned in a final announcement.
- Deadline for reaching new emissions targets
The latest draft calls on countries to reach new and enhanced emissions reduction targets by the end of 2022.
These goals should align with the Paris Agreement’s goal of reducing emissions enough to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees.
Countries achieved new targets ahead of the Glasgow Climate Summit, but many countries did not provide enhanced targets and are now being asked to achieve new enhanced targets.
But some countries, including Saudi Arabia, do not want to do this.
Scientists agree that the world must cut emissions significantly to reach the 1.5-degree target. The draft states that if this is achieved, it will “significantly reduce the risks and consequences of climate change”.
- Financial support for poor countries
In 2009, the world’s richest countries promised that by 2020 they would provide $100 billion annually in climate aid to developing countries. As of now, this goal will not be reached until 2023.
Aid will help developing countries reduce emissions and adapt to the consequences of global warming.
Poor countries think according to Watchman Climate adaptation funding should at least double, and they want to open a discussion about how to significantly increase the 100 billion target.
In the latest draft, rich countries are also asked to double their current financial aid by 2025 Tailored to adapt to the climate, compared to the amount they provided in assistance in 2019.
In addition, there is controversy over whether rich countries should compensate poor countries for climate disasters, termed “losses and damages.” Poor countries believe that rich countries have a moral obligation to do so.
Many countries want a separate fund for losses and damages, while many rich countries are skeptical about this, including the United States. The island nations called the dispute over loss and damage “the elephant in the room”.
The Norwegian delegation led the negotiations on a A new global market for climate sharesWith a delegation from Singapore.
Chapter 6 of the Paris Agreement describes how the quota market operates. For five years, attempts have been made to find a solution for how to ensure that climate quotas lead to real reductions in emissions, and loopholes are avoided.
In recent years, negotiations have stalled.
One of the main challenges is how to avoid double counting.
If one country pays for a measure that provides an emission reduction in another, that emission reduction cannot be accounted for in the climate calculations of both countries.
Brazil is one of several countries that want to have room to trade in climate quotas, but that doesn’t count on any country’s promises of climate cuts.
Sources told VG that it was Japan that first proposed such a solution, in meetings with Norway and Singapore. Since then, the United States and Brazil have worked to develop the solution further.
“Organizer. Social media geek. General communicator. Bacon scholar. Proud pop culture trailblazer.”